New Delhi | Jagran News Desk:Creating a history, American Space Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on Thursday (local time)announced that its biggest and most advanced Perseverance rover landed on the Martian surface. After covering a journey of 203 days, the Perseverance rover traversed 293 million miles (472 million kilometres) to reach the surface of the red planet.

The touch down of Perseverance Rover on the surface of Mars was confirmed BY NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California at 3:55 pm EST (local time). Packed with groundbreaking technology, the Perseverance rover mission marks an ambitious first step in the effort to collect Mars samples and return them to Earth. The MARS 2020 mission was launched on July 30, 2020, from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida.

The 2,263-pound (1,026-kilogram) Perseverance Rover, which is about the size of a car, will undergo several weeks of testing before it begins its two-year science investigation of Mars' Jezero Crater. While the rover will investigate the rock and sediment of Jezero's ancient lakebed and river delta to characterise the region's geology and past climate, a fundamental part of its mission is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life.

To that end, the Mars Sample Return campaign, being planned by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), will allow scientists on Earth to study samples collected by Perseverance to search for definitive signs of past life using instruments too large and complex to send to the Red Planet.

Here's how far the Mission Mars of other countries reached so far:

From flybys to orbiters and landers, more than 40 missions have been launched to Mars till now to explore different aspects of the red planet which has long tickled the imagination of astronomers and space explorers. Apart from the US, the Mars mission of UAE and China are also at different stages and are on the verge of reaching closer to the surface of the Red Planet.

India:

India is one of the few nations to carry out a successful Mars mission in its first attempt. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched on November 23, 2013. Pegged to be one of the cheapest missions to Mars -- at around USD 74 million. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had said the journey to Mars was cheaper than an auto ride.

China:

Chinese mission Tianwen 1 was launched on July 23, 2020. After making a trip of seven months, it arrived in the Martian orbit on February 10. The lander is expected to land somewhere in the Utopia Planitia region, currently scheduled for May 2021.

UAE:

The UAE's Hope mission also entered the Mars orbit earlier this month. It's also the UAE's first interplanetary mission. The UAE's first mission to Mars was successful after the spacecraft reached closer to the Red Planet on Tuesday and entered its orbit in the first attempt. The orbiter which was sent to Mars is named 'Hope' and is called Amal in Arabic. It travelled 300 million miles about seven months to reach the planet. The whole mission was conducted with the goal of preparing the first global weather map of Mars.

Russia:

Just like an exploration of the Moon, the then USSR was the first to send a mission to Mars. According to the European Space Agency (ESA) database, Marsnik 1 was launched on October 10 1960. A flyby mission, it did not reach the Earth's Orbit. From 1960 - 62, the USSR launched five missions to Mars --- Marsnik 1, Marsnik 2, Sputnik 22, Mars 1 and Sputnik 24. In 2003, the European Space Agency and the UK Space Agency embarked on a mission to Mars. Launched in June 2003, a 'Beagle 2' lander was carried to Mars by 'Mars Express orbiter'. The orbiter and lander arrived on December 25, 2003. Beagle 2 was successfully released but no further contact was made and the lander was declared lost.

USA:

It was on November 5, 1964 that the US launched 'Mariner 3'. A flyby mission, the launcher shroud failed to jettison. From 1960-69, the US launched four missions to Mars. The NASA launched Mariner 9, which was an Orbitor, in 1971. It entered the orbit of Mars on 14 November 1971 and was deactivated 516 days after entering the orbit. The NASA also successfully sent Viking 1 Orbitor and Lander in 1975, which successfully reached the surface of the red planet. The Viking 1 lander landed on Mars in 20 July 1976. Another rover, Sojourner, which was launched along with NASA'a Mars Pathfinder Orbitor, launched in 1996, became the first rover to operate on another planet and operated for 84 days. Now on February 18, 2021, NASA's Perseverance Rover landed on the Martian surface.

Posted By: Talibuddin Khan