How The President Is Elected In India | Explained

Presidential Elections 2022: The presidential elections are conducted by the ECI. This year, 4,809 electors - including 543 Lok Sabha and 233 Rajya Sabha MPs - will vote in the polls through the "Single Transferable Vote" method or "Proportional Voting".

By Aalok Sensharma
Fri, 10 Jun 2022 02:02 PM IST
Minute Read
How The President Is Elected In India | Explained
Rashtrapati Bhavan/ ANI Image

New Delhi | Jagran Politics Desk: The Election Commission of India (ECI) on Thursday declared that the presidential polls 2022 will be held on July 18 while the counting of votes will take place on July 21. Making the announcement, the top poll body said over 4,800 electors comprising MPs and MLAs will cast their votes in the elections.

"The value of votes of the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies and both Houses of Parliament is governed by Article 55(2) of the Constitution. The total value of votes for MLAs for the 16th Presidential Election is 5,43,231. The total value of votes for MPs is 5,43,200. The total value of the vote of electors for the Presidential Election, 2022 is 10,86,431," Chief Election Commissioner Rajiv Kumar said while explaining the process of the polls.

"A nomination paper of a candidate has to be subscribed by at least 50 electors as proposers and by at least other fifty electors as seconders. An elector can subscribe to only one nomination paper of a candidate as either a proposer or a seconder," he added.

How is the President of India elected?

The presidential elections are conducted by the ECI. Under Article 54 of the Indian constitution, only elected members of the Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of state and union territories (UTs) are eligible to cast their votes in the polls.

It should be noted that members of the state Legislative Councils are also not allowed to vote in the presidential elections in India.

This year, 4,809 electors - including 543 Lok Sabha and 233 Rajya Sabha MPs - will vote in the polls through the "Single Transferable Vote" method or "Proportional Voting". Under this, the vote value of each MP and MLA is greater than 1. The vote value varies from state to state as per their respective population.

How vote value calculated?

The vote value of an elected MLA is equal to the population of the state/ UT divided by the total elected MLAs of that respective state/ UT multiplied by 1,000.

MLA's Vote Value = Population of state/ Number of elected MLA X 1000

On the other hand, the vote value of an elected MP is equal to the total vote value of MLAs of all states and UTs divided by total elected MPs.

MP's Vote Value = Total Vote Value of All States MLAs/ Total Elected MPs

This year, the vote value of an elected MP has gone down to 700 from 708 due to the absence of a legislative assembly in Jammu and Kashmir.

How voting is conducted?

To win the elections, a candidate needs 51 per cent of the total votes. Every voter needs to give a preference in voting for all candidates in the presidential polls.

Let's say there are four candidates and candidate A got 40 per cent votes, candidate B got 16 per cent votes, candidate C got 14 per cent votes, and candidate D got 30 per cent votes. Now, as no candidate managed to get 51 per cent votes, the candidate with the least votes will get disqualified by default and his or her votes will be divided among the other three candidates as per the preference of electors.

In the above case, candidate C with 14 per cent votes will get disqualified. Now, his or her votes will be divided among others. Let's say among C's votes, A was preferred by 6 per cent of electors as their other preference, B by 6 per cent of electors as their other preference, and D by 2 per cent of electors as their other preference.

Now, A has 46 per cent votes, B has 22 per cent votes, and D has 32 per cent votes.

However, as no candidate still has 51 per cent votes, the above process will continue. B will get dismissed and his or her votes will get divided among A and D. Now let's assume that A has 51 per cent votes while D has 49 per cent votes.

A will now win the elections and become the next president of the country.

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