India's 1st Intranasal COVID Vaccine Approved; How It Could Be A Game Changer | Explained

COVID-19 Vaccination: BBV154 may produce local antibodies in the upper respiratory tract. These may provide the potential to reduce infection and transmission.

By Talibuddin Khan
Tue, 06 Sep 2022 07:47 PM IST
Minute Read
India's 1st Intranasal COVID Vaccine Approved; How It Could Be A Game Changer | Explained
Reuters Photo For Representation

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) on Tuesday approved Bharat Biotech's intranasal vaccine, BBV154, against COVID-19, the first of its kind in the world, for restricted emergency use in those aged above 18 years. Bharat Biotech completed clinical trials of the nasal vaccine with about 4,000 volunteers and there is no side effects or adverse reactions reported so far.

Announcing the achievements, Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya termed it a 'big boost to India's fight against Covid-19. "Big Boost to India's Fight Against COVID-19! Bharat Biotech's ChAd36-SARS-CoV-S COVID-19 (Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vectored) recombinant nasal vaccine approved by @CDSCO_INDIA_INF for primary immunization against COVID-19 in 18+ age group for restricted use in an emergency situation," Mandaviya tweeted.

What is an intranasal vaccine?

Amid the times of viruses, vaccines have become an essential part of one's life. There are several ways to administer any vaccine to human beings. First, the vaccine can be put through Injectable shots, which is the most commonly used technique and delivers the dose into the muscle or in the tissue just between the skin and muscles (subcutaneous). Vaccines can also be administered orally, in which the vaccine is mixed into water and taken orally. This technique is mostly used in infants.

Apart from these two, vaccines can also be administered through the intranasal route. In this technique, the vaccine is administered to a recipient by spraying it into the nostrils and inhaling. A nasal vaccine directly targets the immune cells that are present in and around the mucosal tissues. In the nasal mode of vaccination, both mucosal, as well as systemic immunity, was generated whereas conventional modes of vaccination induce an antibody response.

How much effectiveness does the intranasal vaccine hold?

Unlike other vaccines, intranasal vaccines target the infected site, such as the nose, mouth and lungs to stop the infection. The SARS-CoV-2 or Coronavirus infects through the mucosa, which is the moist tissue present in the mouth, nose and lungs. By administering intranasal vaccines, these tissues are targeted to get a better and quick responses.

Medical experts have found that the injected vaccine provides an immune response that prevented pneumonia, but it did not prevent infection in the nose and lungs. However, in the nasal delivery route, the vaccine prevented the infection in both the lungs and the nose, suggesting that the vaccinated individuals would not spread the virus or develop infections elsewhere in the body.

Key Qualities of BBV154, Bharat Biotech's Intranasal Vaccine:

Bharat Biotech's BBV154 has been specifically formulated to allow intranasal delivery. In addition, the nasal delivery system has been designed and developed to be cost-effective in low and middle-income countries. BBV154 may produce local antibodies in the upper respiratory tract. These may provide the potential to reduce infection and transmission.

- An intranasal vaccine stimulates a broad immune response – neutralizing IgG, mucosal IgA, and T cell responses.

- Non-invasive, Needle-free.

- Ease of administration – does not require trained health care workers.

- Elimination of needle-associated risks (injuries and infections).

- High compliance (Ideally suits for children’s and adults).

This website uses cookie or similar technologies, to enhance your browsing experience and provide personalised recommendations. By continuing to use our website, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy.